Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Chemical Pneumonitis

Causes Symptoms

What is Chemical Pneumonitis?

Chemical pneumonitis is a type of lung inflammation caused by inhalation of various toxic gases, chemicals, and particles. It is also known as “chemical pneumonia” as it may present with similar symptoms to pneumonia.

What Are the Causes of Chemical Pneumonitis?

The causes of chemical pneumonitis vary, but most cases are due to inhalation of irritating chemicals. Common sources of toxic gases and particles include:

  • Industrial sites, such as factories and power plants
  • Household cleaning supplies, such as bleach and ammonia
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Car exhaust
  • Insecticides
  • Fumes from burning materials, such as plastics

In some cases, the lungs may also be exposed to toxic gases during certain medical procedures.

What Are the Symptoms of Chemical Pneumonitis?

Symptoms of chemical pneumonitis typically appear shortly after the lungs are exposed to toxic gases or particles. Common symptoms include:

  • Coughing, which may produce mucus
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Fever
  • Fatigue or weakness
  • Nausea and vomiting

In severe cases, the airways may swell up, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially life-threatening symptoms.

How Is Chemical Pneumonitis Diagnosed and Treated?

If you experience the symptoms of chemical pneumonitis, you should see a doctor right away. Your doctor will perform a physical exam and may order tests, such as a chest X-ray or CT scan, to help determine the cause of your symptoms.


If your symptoms are mild, your doctor may recommend that you rest and drink plenty of fluids. In more severe cases, you may need treatments such as oxygen therapy and medications, including inhalers and steroid medications, to help reduce inflammation and breathing difficulty.

If your symptoms are severe or your doctor suspects that you have been exposed to a toxic gas or particle, you may need to be hospitalized. In this case, your doctor may recommend treatments such as supplemental oxygen and medications to reduce inflammation and support lung function.


The best way to prevent chemical pneumonitis is to avoid exposure to harmful gases and particles. Be sure to wear protective gear when working around toxic materials and keep your living space free of dangerous fumes. Additionally, avoid smoking and limit your time in heavily polluted areas, such as near highways and factories.

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