- 1 and Health
Osteoporosis is a bone disorder characterized by low bone mass, increased bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis is most commonly seen in older adults, especially women, and is a major health concern in many countries. The diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis is important in order to reduce the risk of serious fractures, complications and disability.
Symptoms of Osteoporosis
Common symptoms of osteoporosis include: increasing height loss, stooped posture, and back pain. The most serious consequence of osteoporosis is an increased risk of fractures, especially of the hip, spine and wrist.
There are several ways to prevent the onset of osteoporosis, including getting enough calcium and vitamin D, exercising regularly, avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption. Post-menopausal women should also take supplemental hormones to prevent bone loss.
The diagnosis of osteoporosis is made through a physical examination, a medical history, and imaging tests such as a bone mineral density (BMD) scan and a DEXA scan. These tests measure the strength of bones and can help identify areas of bone that are at risk of fractures.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes lifestyle modifications, medications and supplements. Lifestyle modifications include increasing calcium and vitamin D intake, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking and alcohol. There are also several medications that can help, such as bisphosphonates and bisphosphonate therapies. Additionally, dietary supplements such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K can help increase bone density.