What is Refsum Disease?
Refsum Disease, also known as Phytanic Acid Oxidase Deficiency, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the progressive accumulation of phytanic acid in body tissues and fluids due to a deficiency of the enzymes required to break it down. This buildup can lead to a wide variety of symptoms, including neurological problems, visual disturbances, hearing loss, and liver and kidney dysfunction.
Symptoms of Refsum Disease
Common symptoms of Refsum Disease include:
- Neurological problems: including progressive weakness, loss of sensation, unsteady gait, cognitive deficits, and loss of coordination.
- Visual disturbances: such as profound blindness, blindness due to cataracts, and vision loss due to retinal damage.
- Hearing loss: hearing loss due to nerve damage and an inability to detect certain sounds or tones.
- Liver and kidney dysfunction: including proteinuria, elevated liver enzymes, and hyperuricemia.
Other symptoms of Refsum Disease may include: fatigue, muscle and joint pain, numbness, tingling, and difficulty with speech.
Health Complications Associated with Refsum Disease
Refsum Disease can lead to a wide variety of health complications, including:
- Respiratory complications: such as breathing difficulties or pneumonia.
- Cardiac complications: including arrhythmias and heart failure.
- Vascular complications: such as stroke, hypertension, and aneurysms.
- Gastrointestinal complications: including liver and kidney damage.
- Skin complications: such as hair loss, cracking and redness at the hands and feet, and hyperpigmentation.
Treatment of Refsum Disease
At present, there is no cure for Refsum Disease. However, there are treatments available that can help to manage the symptoms and prevent further progression. treatments include:
- Dietary modification: avoiding foods that are high in phytanic acid, such as dairy products and red meat.
- Medications: to help control symptoms, including pain medications and medications to reduce the levels of phytanic acid in the body.
- Physical therapy: to help with muscle weakness and coordination.
- Surgery: in some cases, surgery may be recommended to help with vision and hearing loss, or to correct any structural changes in the eyes or ears caused by the disease.
- Gene therapy: researchers are exploring ways to repair the faulty gene that causes Refsum Disease.
It is important to work closely with your doctor to develop an effective treatment plan that is tailored to your specific needs.